Senin, 22 November 2010

SkripsiKU di Universitas PGRI Palembang

 Jelang tutup tahun 2010 mas habib baru bisa menyelesaikan strata 1 ku di universitas PGRI palembang. Mas Habib mahasiswa FKIP jurusan Bahas Inggris. Berikut adalah skripsiku... yang akhirnya dapat selesai berkat bantuan banyak pihak. hehehe... meski harus dengan jungkir balik dan malang melintang karenanya. Berikut hasil garapan skripsi mas habib.



 
ABSTRACT
TEACHING READING COMPREHENSION TO THE EIGHTH GRADE STUDENTS THROUGH SHORT STORIES AT SMP NEGERI 29 PALEMBANG
NURCHOLIS HABIBI
2006 111 024
The main problem of this study was "Is it effective teaching reading comprehension through short stories to the eight grade students of SMP Negeri 29 Palembang." Therefore, the objective of this study was to find out whether it is effective or not to teach reading comprehension through short stories to the eight grade students of SMP Negeri 29 Palembang.
The method used in this research was true experimental design. The population of this study was the eighth grade students of SMP Negeri 29 Palembang. The sample of this research consisted of 36 students. The data were collected through written test. The data were analyzed by means of statistical analysis.
Based on the result of data analysis, there were some findings. First, the students’ score in the pre-test (exmperiment group); the mean score only 5.43 the highest score was 7.0 and the lowest score was 3.5. In pre-test (control group); the mean score 5.55 the highest score was 7.0 and the lowest score was 4.0. Second, the students’ score in the post-test (experiment group); the mean score was 7.26, the highest score was 9.0 and the lowest score was 6.0, in post-test (control group); the mean scole was 5.77 the highest score was 7.0 and the lowest score was 4.5. Third, the result of matched t-test calculation between the students’ score in the pre-test and those in the post-test was 7.047 which was higher than t-table that was 2.030. It is, therefore, concluded that the null hypothesis was rejected and the alternative hypothesis was accepted. In other words, it was effective to use short stories in teaching reading comprehension to the eighth grade students of SMP Negeri 29 Palembang.



CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION

This chapter deals with: (1) background (2) problems (3) objectives (4) significances of the study (5) hypothesis of the study (6) criteria for testing the hypothesis.

1. Background

In learning English at junior high school, students should learn the four language skills, namely listening, speaking, reading and writing. These four skills should be presented in a whole or integrated activity. To master these four language skills, students should also learn four language components; they are spelling, vocabulary, grammar and pronunciation.
One of the important subjects in learning a language is reading. Reading can be easily linked to other language skills like listening, speaking, reading and writing. Reading concerns not only assigning sounds to the printed words, but also to the understanding of what is written (Saleh, 1994:41). Reading as one of the skills is obviously important to the students in order to understand the reading materials.
Reading is about understanding written texts. It is a complex activity that involves both perception and thought. Reading consists of two related processes: word recognition and comprehension. Word recognition refers to the process of perceiving how written symbols correspond to one’s spoken language. Comprehension is the process of making sense of words, sentences and connected text. Readers typically make use of background knowledge, vocabulary, grammatical knowledge, experience with text and other strategies to help them understand written text. Much of what we know about reading is based on studies conducted in English and other alphabetic languages. (Kamil, 2003 : 6).
The principles we list in this booklet are derived from them, but most also apply to non-alphabetic languages. They will have to be modified to account for the specific language. Learning to read is an important educational goal. For both children and adults, the ability to read opens up new worlds and opportunities. It enables us to gain new knowledge, enjoy literature, and do everyday things that are part and parcel of modern life, such as, reading the newspapers, job listings, instruction manuals, maps and so on. Most people learn to read in their native language without difficulty. Many, but not all, learn to read as children. Some children and adults need additional help. Yet others learn to read a second, third or additional language, with or without having learned to read in their first language. Reading instruction needs to take into account different types of learners and their needs. Research has shown that there is a great deal of transfer from learning to read in one language to learning to read in a second language.
The principles outlined below are based on studies of children and adults, native speakers as well as those learning to read in a second or foreign language. They deal with different aspects of reading that are important in the planning and design of instruction and materials. The practical applications are based on general learning principles, as well as on research. Briefly stated, these learning principles start with the learner in mind. The type of learner will affect the type of methods and materials to be used. The context of learning is also important. For instance, children and adults who are learning to read in a language different from their native language will also need to learn about the culture of the second or foreign language. Because texts are written with a specific audience in mind, cultural knowledge is present in texts and it is assumed that the reader is familiar with such knowledge. Both research and classroom practices support the use of a balanced approach in instruction. Because reading depends on efficient word recognition and comprehension, instruction should develop reading skills and strategies, as well as build on learners’ knowledge through the use of authentic texts.
According to Kamil (2003 : 14)





Comprehension is the process of deriving meaning from connected text. It involves word knowledge (vocabulary) as well as thinking and reasoning. Therefore, comprehension is not a passive process, but an active one. The reader actively engages with the text to construct meaning. This active engagement includes making use of prior knowledge. It involves drawing inferences from the words and expressions that a writer uses to communicate information, ideas and viewpoints.

Recent studies have focused on how readers use their knowledge and reasoning to understand texts. The term ‘comprehension strategies’ is sometimes used to refer to the process of reasoning. Good readers are aware of how well they understand a text while reading. Good readers also take active steps to overcome difficulties in comprehension. Students can be instructed in strategies to improve text comprehension and information use.
Short story is a systematic account of happening. Something that has a setting ( a plot or purpose), characters and meaning (Petty and jansen, 1980:322). In addition, the brevity of the short story from forces the author develops the plot one’s character in simple way or other portion is summary of plot. Moreover, Brumpit and Robert (1983:120) states that learning short story is likely to be more effective than learning sentence per-sentence.
The teacher of English should select the appropriate short story consisting of words based on curriculum and text book. Selecting the appropriate materials is a important factor for the teacher. The English teacher should not present the short story with many difficult words or idiomatic expressions. Choosing a piece of literature to be use classroom is quite difficult for teacher of English. It is best to select a short story which has certain number of different words. Simplified story may be the answer. The title of short story should be usual topic in order to make it easier for the students to understand the meaning of difficult words.
In Kentucky (2000 : 6) A Short Story Should Include :





setting details woven into the text
development of at least one character through the character’s words, thoughts, and actions and through the words of other characters and/or the writer.
a problem/conflict which is developed as the story (plot) progresses
a resolution of that problem/conflict (climax)
a conclusion (what happens after climax)
snapshots (things for the reader to visualize)
thought shots (characters’ thoughts)
dialogue (optional)

Based on the statement above, this study aims to find out whether or not teaching reading by using short story. It is therefore, this study entitled "Teaching Reading Comprehension to the Eighth Grade Students Through Short Stories at SMP Negeri 29 Palembang".
The reason for choosing this subject is that the writer as serious to know of the short stories and though to it through reading would be of their interest an encourage them to know more.

2 Problems

The problem of this study is to find out whether or not teaching reading comprehension through short stories would be effective for the eighth grade students of SMP Negeri 29 Palembang.

2.1 Limitation of the Problem

The problem in this study was limited on the material of the theme "Narrative Texts" which was taken from the book entitled "English in Focus" written by Artono Wardiman.

2.2 Formulation of the Problem

The problem of this study was "Is it effective to apply short stories in teaching reading comprehension to the eighth grade students of SMP Negeri 29 Palembang?"


3. Objective of the Study

The objective of this study was to find out whether or not it is effective to apply short stories in teaching reading comprehension to the eighth grade students of SMP Negeri 29 Palembang.


4. Significance of the Study

This study was expected to signify for the writer his self, the students, and the teacher of English:





1) For the writer, he can apply and enlarge his knowledge in teaching reading and get a useful experience in doing this study.
2) For the teacher of English, they can create the best technique in teaching English as one of English skills.
3) For other researchers, the result of this study is expected to be useful in providing the references and add other researchers knowledge about the short story technique in teaching reading comprehension.

Arikunto (1998:67) stated that hypothesis is a tentative answer to the investigation problems. Before the data are collected and proved. In this study, they are two kinds of hypothesis:
1. Null Hypothesis (Ho) : It is not effective to apply short stories in teaching reading comprehension to the eighth grade students of SMP Negeri 29 Palembang.
2. Alternative Hypothesis (Ha): It is effective to apply short stories in teaching reading comprehension to the eighth grade students of SMP Negeri 29 Palembang.

6. The Criteria of Testing Hypotheses
The hypotheses would be tested through the critical value of t in the distribution table. Since the total number of the students as the samples of this study is 36 students, the df is 35 and the significance level is 95% or 0, 05 with two tailed test, the critical value of t is 2.030. if the result of the matched t-test is the same or less than 2.030, the null hypothesis will be accepted. On the other hand, if the results of the matched t-test exceed 2.030, the alternative hypothesis will be accepted, and consequently the null hypothesis will be rejected (See Hatch and Farhady, 1982: 272)

CHAPTER II
LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 The Concept of Teaching
According to Slameto (2003:30), teaching is the guidance of learning. It means that the students must be active and the teacher guides the students in a whole learning process. Teaching is a profession conducted by using a combination of art, science, and skill. It is an art because it relies on the "teacher", creative provision of the best possible learning environment and activities for his or her students (Saleh, 1997:16). It is a science since it is a system, an ordered sex of ideas and method used by the teacher in doing his or her main jobs: plan a lesson, implement the plan in the classroom, and evaluate the outcome of the activities. Beside that he also states that the better concepts of teaching characterized by the activities performed by outstanding teaching of English language:
Teaching is making carried out on the basis of specified learning objective: (1) specified behavioral objective identifying the exact feature the students are to learn and use, (2) expressive objective which are closely connected with communicative competence.
Teaching is trying to keep the student’s motivation high by using variety of short activities.
Teaching is learner centered and humanistic, that is the teacher who serves as a guide in learning process, but it is the students who assume who responsibility for how learning takes place.
Teaching is making an effort to help the students to accomplish (1) declarative knowledge reflected in the form of propositions, (2) procedural knowledge represented in the form of production.
Teaching is guiding and facilitating learning, enabling the students to learn, setting conditions for learning by providing a variety of learning experiences to accommodate the various learning styles and learning strategies that exist in the average classroom.
Teaching is an interactive process the teacher and students an among students their selves.
Teaching makes use of the concept of cooperative learning, a strategy in the classroom used to increase motivation and attention to help the students develop a positive image of self and others.
Teaching is accompanied by evaluation to know the results of teaching learning activities because evaluation is a necessary component of all activities, especially in TEFL, whose main objectives is to monitor, to help and to grade the students use of the language.
It is a skill because it demands the ability attained from relevant theories and practice to assist students expertly learning and communicative competence in the target language.
Furthermore, teaching is as skill for it demands the ability – attained from relevant theories and practices to assist the students expertly in learning. So they are able to apply linguistic and communication competence on the target language. In other words, science helps the teacher in contributing to an understanding of learning and of language, but it is the artistic aspect of teaching that requires him or her to uniquely interpret and apply the scientific information in making the choices for any given situation.
2.2 The Concept of Reading Comprehension
Heilman (1981:4) states that reading is interacting with language that has been coded into print. The product of interacting with printed language should be comprehension. Reading ability is closely related to oral language ability. Reading is active and on going process that is affected by an individual interaction with his environment.
Luhulima (1987:2) states that reading is the skill of bringing meaning to and getting meaning from printed or written material. Then, Rivers (1987:213) explains that reading involves communication between the author and the reader, and requires language skills.
Reading as form of written language has to be developed the other skills, like listening, speaking and writing. Reading is generally recognized as one important subject, it means that reading is basic knowledge and essential tool for learning a large subject matter throughout the successive level. It also mean that learning to read should be developed as early as possible.
According to Thorndike (1992:19)
in teaching reading comprehension to the students, the teacher should have their students actively engaged in actual reading and writing through activities that involved reading, writing, and doing things with the text. This active involvement contrasted sharply with other classroom where the students’ engagement is passive, taking turns reading aloud or listening to their teachers. In addition, well developed comprehension questions help the students begin to think critically and intelligently.
Reading is a thinking process. The act of recognizing words requires interpretation of graphic symbols. In order to comprehend a reading thoroughly, a person must be able to use the information to make inferences and read critically and creatively to understand the figurative language determine another’s purposes, evaluate the ideas presented and apply the ideas to actual situations. All of these skills involve thinking process.
2.3 The Concept of Short Story
Short story is a systematic account of happening. Something that has a setting (a plot or purpose), characters and meaning (Petty and jansen, 1980:322). In addition, the brevity of the short story from forces the author develops the plot one’s character in simple way or other portion is summary of plot. Moreover, Brumpit and Robert (1983:120) states that learning short story is likely to be more effective than learning sentence per-sentence.
A short story is a work of fiction that is usually written in prose, often in narrative format. This format tends to be more pointed than longer works of fiction, such as novellas (in the 20th and 21st century sense) and novels or books. Short story definitions based upon length differ somewhat even among professional writers, due somewhat in part to the fragmentation of the medium into genres. Since the short story format includes a wide range of genres and styles, the actual length is determined by the individual author's preference (or the story's actual needs in terms of creative trajectory or story arc) and the submission guidelines relevant to the story's actual market. Guidelines vary greatly among publishers.
Short stories tend to be less complex than novels. Usually a short story focuses on one incident, has a single plot, a single setting, a small number of characters, and covers a short period of time. It can be boiled down to "Man goes up tree. Man gets rocks thrown at him. Man goes down tree."
In longer forms of fiction, stories tend to contain certain core elements of dramatic structure: exposition (the introduction of setting, situation and main characters); complication (the event that introduces the conflict); rising action, crisis (the decisive moment for the protagonist and his commitment to a course of action); climax (the point of highest interest in terms of the conflict and the point with the most action); resolution (the point when the conflict is resolved); and moral. Because of their length, short stories may or may not follow this pattern. Some do not follow patterns at all. For example, modern short stories only occasionally have an exposition. More typical, though, is an abrupt beginning, with the story starting in the middle of the action (in medias res). As with longer stories, plots of short stories also have a climax, crisis, or turning point. However, the endings of many short stories are abrupt and open and may or may not have a moral or practical lesson. As with any art form, the exact characteristics of a short story will vary by creator.
When short stories intend to convey a specific ethical or moral perspective, they fall into a more specific sub-category called Parables (or Fables). This specific kind of short story has been used by spiritual and religious leaders worldwide to inspire, enlighten, and educate their followers.
The teacher of English should select the appropriate short story consisting of words based on curriculum and text book. Selecting the appropriate materials is a important factor for the teacher. The English teacher should not present the short story with many difficult words or idiomatic expressions. Choosing a piece of literature to be use classroom is quite difficult for teacher of English. It is best to select a short story which has certain number of different words. Simplified story may be the answer. The title of short story should be usual topic in order to make it easier for the students to understand the meaning of difficult words.
2.4. The Procedure of Applying Short Story in Teaching Reading Comprehension
According to Saleh (1997:58) teaching and learning activities always process through a format which consist of three major stages or components. The three stages are pre-activity, while activity, and post-activity.
In this case the writer creates his own procedures. The procedures are as follows :
Pre- Activities
Whiles Activities
Post –Activities
2.5 Related Previous Study
There are many theses which discussed the same topic about reading but in doing the research, the writer took one previous study that was written before. She discusses about the Jigsaw technique in teaching reading.
The thesis was written by Andayani (2004) entitled, "The Application of Skimming Technique in Teaching Reading to the First Year Students of Madrasah Aliyah Negeri 3 Palembang". There are some similarities and differences.
The similarity is that both talk about teaching reading. Besides, there are some differences about the technique for teaching reading comprehension, the method of research, and technique for analyzing the data. In Andayani’s thesis, firstly she discussed about the application of skimming in teaching reading. Second, her method of research used the pre-experimental method. The last, in collecting the data, she used test (pre-test and post-test). The result of post-test was higher than in pre-test, the comparison was 7.51 to 6.90.the result of the comparison between post-test and pre-test was 0.61. She also applied the result of the test analyzed by percentage analysis and match t-test.
On the other hand, the writer discussed the short story in teaching reading comprehension to the eighth grade students of SMP Negeri 29 Palembang. In this thesis, the writer used true-experimental method and him technique for analyzing the data by percentage analysis, score ranges and the t-test.















CHAPTER III
RESEARCH PROCEDURE
This chapter presents: (1) method of research, (2) research variables, (3) the operational definitions (4) population and sample (5) technique for collecting the data (6) techniques for analyzing the data
3.1 Research Procedure
3.1.1 Method of Research
This study will use true Experimental Design; they are providing completely adequate controls for all sources of internal invalidity. They represent no compromise between experimental design requirements and the nature and reality of the situation in which a study is being undertaken. (Tuckman 2009:122) It used the pretest-pretest control group Design. The pretest-posttest control group design can be diagrammed as show below :

Where as :
R : Group chosen randomly
O1 : Experiment group pre-test score





No

Class

Number of Students

1

V111.1

36

2

V111.2

36

3

V111.3

40

4

VIII.4

34

5

VIII.5

39

6

VIII.6

32

7

VIII.7

38

(Source : SMP Negeri 29 Palembang in the academic year 2010-2011 )
3.4.2 Sample




No

Class

Number of Students

Groups

1

V111.1

36

Experiment

2

V111.2

36

Control

Total

72


3.5 Technique for Collecting Data
For collecting the data, the writer used the written test that presented in the form of pre- test and post- test. The test items tested should be exactly the same. The result of the test (Pre-test and Post-test) compared and analyzing by using the formula matched t-test. The students’ progress in reading through short story can be seen from the data analysis using matched t-test. In relation to this, Tenbrink (1977:6) cited in Husdayana 2004:19) states that testing tends to be most objectives techniques for obtaining information and is like to lead the most reliable information. Before implementing the materials, the writer gave the students a set of questions (Pre-test) that concerned with the material to be taught and in the process of teaching and learning (before the treatment) reading comprehension is not taught by using short story. After this treatment given. In the treatment, reading comprehension taught by short story. At the end of the presentation or implementation of short story, the writer give the students a written test (post-test) with the questions related to the short story, which have taught previously in the treatment.
3.5.1 Validity and Reliability
3.5.1.1 Validity
The validity refers to extent to which the result of an evaluation serves the particular uses for which they are intended to measure (Richards, et.al 1985:6).
According to Hatch (1985:61), the validity of the material was checked through the content validity; it is form of validity, which is based on degree to which a test is adequately and sufficiently, measure the particular skill or behavior. Table 3 below shows the test specification.
TABLE 3
TABLE OF TEST SPECIFICATION


3.5.1.2 Reliability

Objectives

Materials

Indicators

Total numbers of items

Kinds of Test
The students are able to comprehend the reading textsThe title " Mantu’s Little Elephant"
-
- The students are able to get the detail information from the text.
- The students are able to generalize a paragraph.The students are able to get the main idea of a paragraph.

1-5

Multiple Choice of Test
The students are able to comprehend the reading texts-The title " Buggy Races"






-The title "The flowers from the Moon"




-the title " The Owl and the Nightingale"

-The students are able to describe a piece of evidence from the text.
- The students are able to translate the meaning of word.
-The students are able to state the title of the text.

-The students are able to get the main idea of a paragraph.
-The students are able to the detail information from the text.
- The students are able to generalize a paragraph.
- The students are able to get the main idea of a paragraph.
-The students are able to get the detail information from the text.
-The students are able to generalize a paragraph.

6-10






11-15




16-20

Multiple Choice of Test

TABLE 4

THE RESULT OF THE TRY-OUT TEST

Students'

Total Items

Total

Number

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

Score

1

1

0

1

1

1

1

1

0

1

0

1

0

1

1

1

1

0

0

1

1

14

2

1

0

1

0

0

1

0

1

0

1

0

0

1

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

7

3

1

1

0

1

1

1

0

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

0

0

0

1

0

1

14

4

0

1

0

1

0

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

0

1

1

1

1

1

16

5

1

0

0

0

1

0

1

1

1

1

0

1

1

0

1

1

0

1

0

1

12

6

1

0

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

0

0

0

1

1

1

0

1

1

0

1

14

7

1

1

0

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

4

8

0

0

1

1

1

0

0

1

0

1

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

6

9

1

1

0

1

1

1

1

1

1

0

1

0

1

0

1

0

1

1

1

0

14

10

1

0

0

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

0

1

0

1

1

1

1

1

1

16

11

1

0

0

1

1

1

1

1

1

0

0

1

0

1

0

1

1

1

1

0

13

12

0

1

1

1

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

0

1

0

0

1

7

13

1

0

0

0

1

1

1

1

1

1

0

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

16

14

1

0

0

1

1

1

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

0

6

15

1

1

0

0

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

0

17

16

1

1

1

0

0

1

1

1

1

1

0

0

1

1

1

0

0

1

1

0

13

17

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

0

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

9

18

1

0

0

0

1

1

1

0

1

0

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

0

1

14

19

1

1

1

1

0

0

1

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

0

7

20

1

1

1

1

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

1

0

1

1

1

1

0

11

21

1

0

0

0

0

1

1

1

1

1

0

0

0

0

0

1

1

1

0

0

9

22

1

1

1

0

0

0

0

0

1

1

1

0

0

1

1

0

1

1

0

0

10

23

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

0

0

0

1

1

1

1

0

0

0

1

1

1

14

24

1

0

0

0

1

1

1

1

1

0

1

1

0

1

1

1

1

1

0

0

13

25

0

0

1

1

1

1

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

1

0

1

0

1

9

26

1

0

0

0

1

1

1

0

1

0

1

0

1

0

1

1

1

1

0

1

12

27

1

1

1

0

0

0

0

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

16

28

1

1

1

0

1

1

1

0

1

0

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

0

16

29

1

1

1

1

1

0

1

0

1

0

1

0

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

16

30

1

1

1

1

0

0

0

1

1

1

1

1

0

1

0

1

1

1

1

0

14

31

1

1

1

0

0

0

0

1

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

6

32

1

0

0

0

0

1

0

1

0

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

14

33

1

1

1

1

1

0

1

1

1

1

0

1

1

1

1

0

0

0

0

0

13

34

1

0

0

1

1

1

1

1

1

0

0

1

0

1

0

1

0

0

0

0

10

35

0

1

1

0

0

1

1

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

5

36

0

1

1

1

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

1

1

1

1

9

37

1

1

1

1

1

1

0

1

1

1

0

1

1

1

1

1

0

1

0

1

16


Students'

Total Items

Total

Number

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

Score

38

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

1

0

0

0

1

1

1

1

0

0

0

0

7

39

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

1

1

1

6

40

1

0

0

1

1

1

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

5

TOTAL

450

TABLE 5
THE RELIABILITY OF THE TEST

The Number of the Students’

The Students Total Scores (X)

X2

1

14

196

2

7

49

3

14

196

4

16

256

5

12

144

6

14

196

7

4

16

8

6

36

9

14

196

10

16

256

11

13

169

12

7

49

13

16

256

14

6

36

15

17

289

16

13

169

17

9

81

18

14

196

19

7

49

20

11

121

21

9

81

22

10

100

23

14

196

24

13

169

25

9

81

26

12

144

27

16

256

28

16

256

29

16

256

30

14

196

31

6

36

32

14

196

33

13

169

34

10

100

35

5

25

The Number of the Students’

The Students Total Scores (X)

X2

36

9

81

37

16

256

38

7

49

39

6

36

40

5

25

Jumlah

450

5664

The formula of Mean states in Hatch and Farhadi (1982:55)
M =
M = = 11.25
The formula of SD :
SD =
SD =
SD =
SD =
SD =
SD =
SD =
SD = 3.92
KR 21 =
KR 21 =
KR 21 =
KR 21 =
KR 21 = 1.05 [1-0.32]
KR 21 = 1.05 [0. 68]
KR 21 = 0.71
For the research purpose, the reliability coefficient should be at least. 0.70 and preferably higher. The result of the try-out test instrument was 0.71. It means the reliability coefficient of the test was reliable and valid.
3.6 Technique for analyzing the data
These are three technique applied in analyzing the data obtained. They are: (1) Percentage analysis, (2) score range, and (3) the t-test.
3.6.1 Percentage Analysis
The percentage analysis will used to find out the students’ individual scores, the formula is as follow:
X =
(See Tinabunan, 1988: 136)
In which:
X = Students Individual Scores
R = Number of Correct Answers
N = Number of Test Items
3.6.2 Score Ranges
The score range was used to interpret the students score with certain criteria. Test scores are based on the students report book.
TABEL 6
CONVENTIONAL OF SCORE RANGE

Score range

Qualification

10
9
8
7
6
5
4

<
3

Excellent
Very good
Good
Moderate
Enough
Low
Poor
Very poor
 
3.6.3 Matched t-test
To know the significant difference between the students’ achievements in the pre-test and the post-test, the matched t-test was applied the formula is as follows:
Tobt =
T = the obtained t.
X1 = Means of the students’ scores in the post-test
X2 = Means of the students’ scores in the pre-test
SD = the standard of Errors of Differences between Two means
(Hatch and Farhady; 1982:116)

 

CHAPTER IV
FINDINGS AND INTERPRETATION
In this chapter, the writer presents the finding and interpretation of the study dealing with the topic of Teaching Reading Comprehension to the Eighth Grade Students through Short Stories at SMP Negeri 29 Palembang.
4.1 Findings
This part describes and analyzes the results of the test that are administered before and after the experiment. There are three findings; (1) the students’ scores in pre-test, (2) the students’ scores in post-test, and (3) the result of the matched t-test calculation between the students’ scores in the pre-test and the post-test.
4.1.1 The Students’ Scores in the Pre-test
Based on the score of individual students obtained from the written test, it was found that before the writer gave short stories in teaching reading, the average in the pre-test of experimental group was 5.43. Before the writer gave the students’ treatment, he gave them a pre-test and then he took the score. After the score had been calculated, the writer found that the highest score was 7.0 reached by three students and the lowest score was 3.5 reached by two students. Meanwhile, the pre-test average score of control group was 5.55. The highest score was 7.0 obtained by three students and the lowest score was 4.0 obtained by two students. The data distribution of the students’ score in the pre-test can be seen in Table 6 and Table 8.
Based on the table, the writer got the total score of the students, in experimental group it was 195. To get the average score of the pre-test, the writer divided the total score of the students by the number of the students and the result of this calculation was 5.43. In control group, the total score of students was 200 and the average was 5.55.
4.1.2 The Students’ Score in the Post-test
The items of test in the post-test were exactly the same as those in the pre-test, the difference is that in the post-test it was given after the writer had already presented the treatment, while the pre-test was given before it.
The highest was 9.0 gained by three students and the lowest score was 6.0 reached by six students. In order to have clear can be seen in table 6 below. Based on the table, the writer got the total of the students 261.5. To get the average score of the students, the writer divided the total score of the students by the number of the students and the result of this calculation was 7.26.
From the two results above (pre-test and post-test), the students’ scores increased. Their average score in the post-test was better than in the pre-test. In the post-test, the average score that the students got was 7.26, this average score higher than the average score that they reached in the pre-test, the score was 5.43. The highest score in the post-test was 9.0 obtained by three student, this highest score exceeded that they got in the pre-test that was 7.0. Unlike in the pre-test in which they reached the score 3.5 for the lowest score. In the post-test, they got 6.0 for the lowest score. Table 6 below presents the result of the pre-test and post-test.
In contrast, the post-test average score of control group was 5.77. The highest score was 7.0 reached by three students and the lowest score was 4.5 reached by four student. The data distribution of the students’ score can be seen in Table 8.
TABLE 6
THE RESULT OF PRE-TEST AND POST-TEST IN THE EXPERIMENTAL GROUP

Post-Test

Pre-Test

Frequency

%

Frequency

%
9.0
3
8.3
-
-
8.5
5
13.9
-
-
8.0
3
8.3
-
-
7.5
5
13.9
-
-
7.0
7
19.1
3
8.3
6.5
7
19.1
5
13.9
6.0
6
16.7
8
22.2
5.5
-
-
5
13.9
5.0
-
-
5
13.9
4.5
-
-
5
13.9
4.0
-
-
3
8.3
3.5
-
-
2
5.6
Total
36
100%
36
100%










TABLE 7
THE
CENTRAL TENDENCIES OF EXPERIMENTAL GROUP

Statistics
Posttest
Pretest
Valid
36
36
Missing
0
0
Mean
7.264
5.431
Median
7.000
5.500
Std. Deviation
.9672
.9939
Minimum
6.0
3.5
Maximum
9.0
7.0
Sum
261.5
195.5


The statistics showed students’ score in the pre-test and post-test in experimental group was calculated by using of the SPSS 17. To get the average of the students’ score in the pre-test, the writer divided the total score of the students in the pre-test (195.5) by the total number of the sample students (36), therefore, the writer found mean in the pre-test was 5.43. The lowest score in the pre-test was 3.5 and the highest score in the pre-test was 7.0. The average of the students’ score in the post-test, the writer divided the total score of the students in post-test (261.5) by the total number of the sample students (36), therefore, the writer found mean in the post-test was 7.26. the lowest score in post-test was 6.0 and the highest score in the post-tes was 9.0. The comparison between the students’ pretest and posttest scores in the experimental group can be seen in Graph 1.












Graph 1 : the Comparison between the Students’ Pretest and Posttest Scores in the Experimental Group
The writer analyzed the students’ pre-test and post test-score and shows it in a chart (The score in experiment group). The pre-test showed with blue and post test showed with red. Category (X) axis was total of students and category (Y) was score.
TABLE 8
THE RESULT OF PRE-TEST AND POST-TEST IN THE CONTROL GROUP

Post-Test

Pre-Test

Frequency

%

Frequency

%
7.0
3
8.3
3
8.3
6.5
8
22.2
2
5.6
6.0
8
22.2
10
27.8
5.5
8
22.2
9
25.0
5.0
5
13.9
7
19.4
4.5
4
11.1
3
8.3
4.0
-
-
2
5.6
Total
36
100%
36
100%



TABLE 9
THE
CENTRAL TENDENCIES OF CONTROL GROUP

Statistics
Posttest
Pretest
Valid
36
36
Missing
0
0
Mean
5.778
5.556
Median
6.000
5.500
Std. Deviation
.7411
.7632
Minimum
4.5
4.0
Maximum
7.0
7.0
Sum
208.0
200.0


The statistics shows students’ score in the pre-test and post-test in experimental group was calculated by using of the SPSS 17. To get the average of the students’ score in the pre-test, the writer divided the total score of the students in the pre-test (200) by the total number of the sample students (36), therefore, the writer found mean in the pre-test was 5.55. The lowest score in the pre-test was 4.0 and the highest score in the pre-test was 7.0. The average of the students’ score in the post-test, the writer divided the total score of the students in post-test (208) by the total number of the sample students (36), therefore, the writer found mean in the post-test was 5.77. the lowest score in post-test was 4.5 and the highest score in the post-tes was 7.0. The comparison between the students’ pretest and posttest scores in the control group can be seen in Graph 2.












Graph 2 : the Comparison between the Students’ Pretest and Posttest Scores in the Control Group
The writer analyzed the students’ pre-test and post test-score and shows in a chart (The score in control group). The pre-test showed with blue and post test showed with red. Category (X) axis was total of students and category (Y) was score.
4.2 The Calculation of the Matched t-test
Based on the students’ scores obtained both in the pre-test and the post-test, the writer calculated the matched t-test to find out whether it was significantly effective or not to use Short Stories in Teaching Reading. By using the students’ scores that they got in the pre-test and in the post-test, the writer found the result of matched t-test, that was 7.04 which was higher than the critical value that was 2.030. Table 11 presents that specific calculation in more detail.

TABLE 10
THE STUDENTS’ SCORES AND THE RESULTS OF
THE MATCHED T-TEST COMPUTATION

Students

Experimental

Control

D

D2

1

8.5

7

1.5

2.25

2

7

6.5

0.5

0.25

3

8

6.5

1.5

2.25

4

9

5

4

16

5

6.5

5.5

1

1

6

6

6.5

-0.5

0.25

7

8.5

6

2.5

6.25

8

7

7

0

0

9

6.5

5.5

1

1

10

6

6.5

-0.5

0.25

11

9

5

4

16

12

6

5.5

0.5

0.25

13

8

6

2

4

14

7

4.5

2.5

6.25

15

9

6.5

2.5

6.25

16

6.5

5.5

1

1

17

7.5

4.5

3

9

18

7

6

1

1

19

6.5

6.5

0

0

20

8.5

5.5

3

9

21

6

4.5

1.5

2.25

22

7.5

4.5

3

9

23

7

6

1

1

24

7.5

5

2.5

6.25

25

6.5

6.5

0

0

26

8.5

5.5

3

9

27

7

5

2

4

28

7.5

6.5

1

1

29

8

6

2

4

30

7

5.5

1.5

2.25

31

7.5

5

2.5

6.25

32

6.5

7

-0.5

0.25

33

6

6

0

0

34

8.5

5.5

3

9

35

6.5

6

0.5

0.25

36

6

6

0

0

Total

261.5

208

53.5

136.75

Average

7.26

5.78

1.49

3.80

TABLE 11
PAIRED SAMPLES TEST

Paired Samples Test

Paired Differences

95% Confidence Interval of the Difference

Lower

Upper
Pair 1Experiment - Control
1.4861

1.2789

.2131

1.0534

1.9188

7.047

35

.000


The different score in the post-test and pre-test in experiment group shows the Mean was 1.4861, standard deviation was 1.2789, standard error mean was 0.2131, t was 7.04 and df was 35. Moreover, the graphic was provided to be clearer.
All these scores were calculated through the matched t-test formula :
Before finding the result of the t-test calculation, the writer calculates the (Standard Error of the Difference between two means). After that the result of calculation with the matched t-test, the writer calculated SD (Standard Deviation) which could gained by using the following formula :
Based on the data presented in table 7, the SD is calculated follows:

SD = 1.27
Where : = Standard Error of Difference between Two Means
SD = Standard Deviation
N = Number of Students as the Sample
Based on the Sd obtained, S is calculated as follows:
0.21
Based on the data SD and S found, the matched t-test is calculated as follows:
t = 7.04
2.030 < 7.04
Level of significant 95% (0.05)
T = (n-1)
= (36-1)
= (35)
= 2.030

7.04 > 2.030
 >
Based on the result above, the null hypothesis was rejected because tobt of 7.04 exceeded 2.030 and consequently the Ha was accepted. It means teaching reading by short stories was significantly effective.
4.3 Interpretation
Based on the written test, the students’ score average in the pre-test was 5.43. It means that their ability in listening was in the "poor" level. The highest score was 7.0 reached by three students and the lowest one was 3.5 obtained by two students.
After done the treatment, the students got progress in their score. Their average score in the pre-test was 5.43 before and their average score in the post-test was 7.26. It means that their knowledge about reading comprehension increased by short stories.
From the students’ scores, the average score in the pre-test and the post-test of reading comprehension, the matched t-test was 7.04. It was higher than 2.030, as its critical value. It means that the teaching of reading comprehension by short stories enabled the students to get better scores. In addition, the writer proved that the Short Stories was effective in teaching Reading Comprehension to the eighth grade students of SMP Negeri 29 Palembang.
CHAPTER V
CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION
In this chapter, the writer presents conclusions and some suggestions. They are presented below:
5.1 Conclusion
Based on the analysis of data in chapter four, the writer could draw the conclusion. The mean scores of the students in the pre-test was 5.43. The highest score was 7.0 got by three students and the lowest score was 3.5 obtained by two students. Futhermore, mean score of the students in the post-test was 7.26. The highest score was 9.0 gained by three student and the lowest score was 6.0 reached by six students.
From the mean score of the students in the pre-test and the post-test above, the writer could conclude, the mean score of the students in the pre-test was 5.43 and increased to be 7.26 in the post-test. It means that teaching Reading Comprehension by Short Stories enabled the students to get better scores. And the calculation of matched t-test was higher than critical value of t the data show that the calculation of matched t-test goal 7.04 as the result. This score exceed 2.030 as its critical value.
In addition, the writer proved that Short Stories was efective in teaching Reading Comprehension to the Eighth Grade Students of SMP Negeri 29 Palembang

5.2 Suggestion
The writer offers three suggestions: first, as a teacher it is better not to use only one method, but she/he use some method. So that the students will not feel bored in learning process. Second, based on the result of the research, Short Stories could influence the students’ Reading Skill, so it expected that the teachers of English could teach by Short Stories to improve the students skill. The third, it can be identified that the students have different abilities in a classroom, and they must be encouraged to ask their friends than the teacher. So, Short Stories is one of teaching strategy that can be used.
Reliability refers to the consistency of the scores obtained-how consistent they are for each individual from one administration of an instrument to another and from one set of items to another (Frankle and Wallen, 1990:133). In this investigation Kuder-Richardson Reliability Coefficient estimated the internal consistency reliability. It is a statistical formula used as one estimate of the reliability of a test. Which is based on the number of items in the test, the means score, and its standard deviation. The following in the Kuder- Richardson 21 (KR 21) formula (Fraenkel and Wallen, 1990: 135)
KR 21 =
Where
KR 21 = Kuder- Richardson Reliability Coefficient
K = Number of items in the test
M = Mean of the set of test scores
SD = Standard deviation of the set of test scores.
It is a statistical formula uses as one of estimations of reliability of the test, which is based on the number of items in the test, the mean score and its standard deviation.
The formula :
SD =
(Hatch and Farhady, 1982 : 59)
Where :
SD = Standard Deviation
X = The Number of the Students’ Correct Answers
N = The Number of the Students
In doing test for reliability, the writer chose another class, out of experimental and control group the class was VIII.3 students of SMP Negeri 29 Palembang, the writer only chose 40 students for reliability test.
  = The Students Average Correct Answer

According to Fraenkel and Wallen, (1990:67), a sample in a research study refers to any group on which information is obtained.
To select the sample, the writer wrote the names of four classes on three small pieces of paper and than put them in a glass. From the four classes, the writers chose two classes, VIII.2 as the control group and VIII.1 as the experiment group.

TABLE 2
SAMPLE OF THE RESEARCH
X : Treatment
O2 : Experiment group post-test score
O3 : Control Group pretest score
O4 : Control Group posttest score
The steps taken in doing the research are as follows:
a. determining the topic to be in investigation;
b. reading relevant literature;
c. formulating the research problem clearly;
d. designing the research proposal;
e. giving the pre-test to match the two groups;
f. conducting and experiment;
g. giving the post-test to collect the data;
h. analyzing the data collected;
I. drawing conclusions;
j. writing a research report as a thesis;
3.2 Research Variable
According to Hatch and Farhady (1982:068), a variable can be defined as an attribute of a person or of an object which" varies" from person to person or from object to object. A variable is a concept-a noun that stands for variation within a class of objects such as chair, gender, eye color, achievement, motivation or running speed (Fraenkel and Wallen, 1990:76).
There will be two kinds of variable in this research: the independent variable and the dependent variable. The independent variable is the major variable to be investigated. It is the variable which is selected, manipulated, and measure by the researcher. The dependent variable is the variable to be observed and measured to determine the effect of the independent variable (Hatch and Farhady, 1982:71). The independent variable of this research is the applying the short stories and the dependent variable of this research is the students’ ability in reading comprehension.
To avoid the readers from misunderstanding about the terms used, in this study, the writer presented the operational definitions below.
Application is derived from the word "to apply" which means to bring or put into use or technique in teaching reading text. Teaching is an interactive process between the teacher and students and among students themselves in getting new knowledge and skills. Short Story is a work of fiction that is usually written in prose, often in narrative format. This format tends to be more pointed than longer works of fiction, such as novellas (in the 20th and 21st century sense) and novels or books. Reading is an interaction between the author and the reader. To understanding the printed message, the reader must perceive interprets, hypothesize, and evaluate.



3.4 Population and Sample
3.4.1 Population

Arikunto (1998:115) states that population is a set or collections off all elements processing one more attributes interest. According to Fraenkel and Wallen (1990:68), population is the group of interest to the researcher, the group to whom the researcher would like to generalize the result of the study. The population of this study will all the eighth grade students of SMP Negeri 29 Palembang in the academic year of 2010/2011. The following table will description of the total number of the eighth grade students of SMP Negeri 29 Palembang.

TABLE 1
POPULATION OF THE RESEARCH
3.3 Operational Definitions
Review (ask the students they can understand or not about the lesson)
Teacher closes the activities in the classroom

The teacher read short story and students listen him
The teacher translates the text into Indonesian language
The teacher wrote some new vocabulary from the story on the blackboard that
The teacher introduces as new vocabulary then he explains the meaning of those words
After that students note the words in their book
Greeting (teacher asks the students about their mood, such as: "How are you? what you feel today, are you fine)
Teacher checks the students attendance
Teacher gives motivation for the students
Teacher warming up with some small tall (questions) related with the topic :
What do you know about the short story?
What kinds of story?
What is the story do you like?
Teacher introduces short story to the students and mention kinds of short story
This chapter presents: (1) the concept of teaching (2) the concept of reading comprehension (3) the concept of short story (4) the procedure of applying short story in teaching reading comprehension (5) related previous studies.

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